How does 5G wireless work?

Wireless networks consist of "cells" divided into areas that send data via radio waves. 4G LTE (Long-Term Evolution) technology will provide the foundation for 5G. Unlike 4G, which requires large, high-capacity mobile towers to transmit signals over longer distances, 5G wireless signals will be transmitted over a large number of small mobile stations located in places such as lamppost or roof. The use of multiple small cells is necessary because the millimeter wave spectrum - the spectrum between 30 GHz and 300 GHz that 5G relies on to create high speeds - can only travel over short distances and is subject to weather and Obstacles like buildings.

Previous generations of wireless technology have used lower frequency bands. To offset the millimeter-wave challenges associated with distance and interference, the wireless industry is also considering using a lower frequency spectrum for 5G networks so that network operators can use the spectrum they already have. own to build new network. However, the lower frequency spectrum achieves greater distances but has lower speeds and power than millimeter waves.

What is the current state of 5G deployment?
Wireless network operators in four countries - the United States, Japan, South Korea and China - are largely pushing for the construction of the first 5G networks. They are expected to spend billions of dollars on 5G investment costs until 2030, according to Technology Business Research Inc., although it's unclear how 5G services will generate a return on that investment. Developing applications and business models that take advantage of 5G can address operators' revenue concerns.

At the same time, standards bodies are working on universal 5G device standards. The 3rd Generation Partner Project (3GPP) approved the new 5G Radio standard (NR) in December 2017 and is expected to complete the 5G mobile core standard needed for 5G mobile services. by the end of 2018. The 5G radio system is not compatible with 4G radio, but network operators that have invested in wireless networks can recently upgrade to a new 5G system through software instead of buying equipment. new equipment.

With almost complete 5G wireless device standards and the first 5G-compatible smartphones and related wireless devices to be on the market in 2019, 5G applications will start to appear. from 2020 to 2025, according to predictions by Technology Business Research. By 2030, 5G services will become the mainstream and are expected to move from virtual reality content (VR) distribution to automated media navigation enabled by time communication. Real (RTC).

What types of 5G wireless services will be provided?
The carriers are developing two types of 5G services.

5G fixed wireless broadband service provides internet access to every home and business without traditional wired connection. To do that, network operators deploy NRs in small-scale cell cells near buildings to send signals to rooftop receivers or amplified on-site windows. Fixed broadband services are expected to help operators provide broadband services to families and businesses less expensive because this method eliminates the need to deploy fiber optic lines. to every residence. Instead, operators only need to install fiber optic cable into cellular cells and customers receive broadband service through wireless modems located in their residential or business areas.

5G mobile service will give users access to the operator's 5G mobile network. These services will start deploying in 2019, when the first 5G-enabled (or compatible) devices are expected to be available during this period. The provision of mobile services also depends on the completion of 3GPP mobile core standards by the end of 2018.